How do all the treatments for pain relief stack up?
Any pain which lasts for longer than a few months is termed chronic pain. A few special cases of chronic pain cannot be cured but most other types can be cured depending on the treatment used. The first step to curing chronic pain is to understand what is causing the pain and where exactly the pain is coming from. This is arguably the most important step as understanding the pain helps you choose the right course of action. The second step consists of choosing the right treatment for your pain. The choice you make depends on-
� How long the pain has lasted
� How severe the pain is
� What’s causing the pain
� Where the pain is coming from
Types of pain relief treatments
A magnetic patch from PIP Singapore which makes a back pain patch Singapore is your best bet to curing your chronic pain as it can cure a whole host of pains. The magnetic patch is a one size fits all type of treatment while other treatments are for more specific kinds of pains. It is also very cost effective when compared to the other treatments in this list.
Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) is another type of treatment in which a doctor targets the specific nerve that sends pain signals to your brain. The doctor uses a needle with a tip that heats up to zap the nerve so that it cannot send the signal anymore. RFA relieves pain for up to a year and isn’t very cost effective versus magnet patches which are cost effective and can completely cure chronic pain.
Pain shots are another option in which a doctor uses an x ray to find out where to put specific medicines that he will recommend. Steroids and anaesthetics are prominently used in this type of treatment. Many people stay away from this treatment over magnetic treatment because of the use of drugs and chemicals in pain shots. Magnetic treatment is natural and completely drug and chemical free.
Opioids are different from Pain shots in the way they are administered. A pain shot is injected into the bloodstream while an Opioid is consumed. Opioids are dangerous because they have shown many harmful side effects like drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, addiction, accidental overdose, dizziness and constipation. It is understandable why people would like to stay away from opioids when they could undergo magnetic therapy to achieve similar long lasting results.
Magnetic Therapy: Where it All Began
As we are all aware, the use of magnetic therapy is rampant nowadays. You can find magnet-made relief products in drugstores, wellness centers and trading places all over the world. Scientists and people have learned to use it in ways that are convenient for anyone who will use it. Thus, for those who wonder how this kind of alternative healing began, the first thing to look up is history because that where evidences is found way before researchers have conducted their study on magnetic therapy.
The never-ending question in the history is, “does it work”? It is ironic because how are we supposed to know if we are not to try? To answer this without taking risks, we refer to the records and testimonies present.
If you are looking for pain relief via magnetic therapy, look for PIP Singapore. They are Japan’s #1 Magneto-therapeutic Device and are one of the most established magnetic therapy. Check out their site today: http://pip.com.sg
To see how this practice innovates, we will read an article written by Richard C. Senelick, M.D.
Can Magnetic Therapy Relieve Pain?
Almost every sporting goods store, pro-shop or web page has an advertisement for therapeutic magnets with claims of pain relief and a better golf game. There are magnetic bracelets, necklaces, shoes inserts, mattress covers, head bands and, yes, dog collars. It certainly isn’t new. But, is there any scientific evidence to support all of these claims? Read full article here
There are no specific names or places that are believed to be the origin of magnetic therapies but studies have found that is being using all over the world even before industrial revolutions took place. Being used by Kings and Queens in the early centuries, magnetic therapy has proved its effect to one’s health over time. Before it is cultivated to as mattresses, jewelries and binders, people have used the stone itself and this is probably why people in the early age had so many superstitions and belief about alchemy, magic and witchcraft.
History of Magnet Therapy
Magnet therapy has a long history in traditional folk medicine. Reliable documentation tells us that Chinese doctors believed in the therapeutic value of magnets at least 2,000 years ago, and probably earlier than that. In sixteenth century Europe, Paracelsus used magnets to treat a variety of ailments. Read full article here
To end the fallacy, modern physicians and scientists have conducted several studies and experiences to know—or for some, to show that magnetic therapy works for some. Using technology, they are able to identify the materials used in the magnets and how they react to the chemical and physical aspects in the body. Together, they are able to use magnetic fields to ease chronic illnesses as well as devices that can detect or diagnose an occurring one.
By doing this, the days of mystery and guessing why is this certain type of stone is magical. Well, in a sense, it is magical because it can relieve chronic pains and disorders in no time and eventually, get rid of them. Understanding how our human body works by the cell level gives us a better perspective on how to treat common illnesses without taking medication and suffering from its side effects.
For the last article by Dr. Jockers, we will be able to know how the effect takes place to our body.
How Does Magnetic Therapy Work?:
Magnets work by improving circulation to the damaged region and improving the injured cell’s polarity. Magnet energy is considered a catalyst which speeds up biological processes and enables the body to reduce inflammation and heal itself. Magnets also speed up circulation improve oxygen and nutrient absorption into the targeted cells. Read full article here
In the theory of evolution of humans, we have passed the Stone Age and people from this era could also have possible used magnets in their daily lives. However, it could be of another form and appearance and we only know about it by artifacts. There are claims that magnets are first discovered in Greece but in some commentary, magnetic therapy is first used in the East. With this, there is no specific name of region mentioned that proves where magnetic therapy is invented.
Moving on, there is no other way but to improve the products we have today and the possibilities are endless. Some of the devices invented may be surprising but if you think about it, it is also what people in the ancient time have felt when they first discovered the use of magnetic therapy. The point is, no matter how many times and how many versions of tools human can create, the benefits of this alternative healing stays the same. Unless the manufacturer produces a substandard product, then magnetic therapy could be a fraud.
Know All About DSRC Technology
DSRC of Dedicated Short-range Communications Technology is a primary field of R&D for a network dedicated solely for uses related to transportation. Check out some of the fundamentals of DSRC.
It is a dual-way capability for short-to-medium-range communications, which permit extremely high data transmission important for communications based road safety applications.
If you are looking for a DSRC Technology provider in Singapore, you should consider ATT Systems Group.
Typically, an intelligent transportation system facilitating cars with the assistance of new drivers, smarter infrastructure, as well as, features of autonomous driving are looked upon as a means for decreasing the number of fatalities and traffic accidents and enhance fuel efficiency and improve traffic congestion.
Ways in which DSRC technology can be used
There is a widespread anticipation that the DSRC technology can be applied in vehicle-to-vehicle or V2V communications and vehicle-to-infrastructure or V2X communications. It is expected to be especially handy for the latter since the technology supports rapid network acquisition, the capability to cope up with frequent and quick handovers, which are typical characteristics of any vehicle environment, support secure and low-latency transmissions and is extremely robust even when the weather conditions are not favorable.
Over 40 use case has been identified by the DOT for the V2I technologies like making payment for tolls and parking wirelessly, alert a driver when a vehicle comes near a curve on the road to fast, alert drivers of certain conditions like road constructions and adjust traffic signals for accommodating the initial responder in an emergency and so on.
The technology is expected to include
� Processes and systems needed to make sure that the network is a trusted one and support managing the security credentials.
� Interfaces for controlling traffic signals for application needing timing data and signal phase.
� Positioning services to resolve vehicle locations for precision and high accuracy.
� Mapping services, which provide in-depth signage, roadway geometries, as well as, asset locations for different connected vehicle applications.
� Roadside communications enclosures and types of equipment, network backhaul, power, and mountings.
� Data servers to process and collect data for distributing distribution and offered by vehicles.
DSRC offers high dependability when required
Any active safety solution requires a high level of reliability. The utility of this technology comes into action when a car is running at a high speed. The DSRC technology has the ability to perform very well even when the weather conditions are unfavorable are extreme like rain, fog, and snow. The technology makes sure that even during high speed; vehicles are able to deter collisions and crashes, thus reducing the number of accidents and fatalities.
The risks in IT business & how to protect your IT business wisely?
The freelance business is growing worldwide. The growth is very significant that some times in the future it is expected that freelance workforce will be bigger than its permanent counterpart. Since more and more small business emerges and operates to provide professional services and consultancy to the customers, so too the risks of professional liability lawsuits or claims will increase. IT field is not excluded in this scenario.
If you are looking for a corporate or personal insurance provider, you should consider Allegiance Associates. They cover a wide range of professional insurance in Singapore. You should check out their website here.
In fact, IT professionals or contractors might be more prone to professional risks than any other businesses. The risk may not be obvious like a collapsed floor when a building is still under construction, or death of a patient under medical treatment due to negligence, or loss of compensation in legal action because the lawyer of the case failed to highlight certain important facts already made known to him. But a problematic line of coding can similarly contribute to software failure that cause major disruption to business, or an overlooked bug can cause monetary loss to the customers as well. Unfortunate incident like theft of project laptop can entails lots of trouble, too, especially when the deadline is very near or if it involves confidential information that can jeopardize clients’ interest and profit. Markel direct explains five reasons why IT professionals should choose to be insured professionally.
Why IT professionals need to be professionally indemnified by insurance coverage
- No insurance, no contract.
Many contracts require you to have professional indemnity insurance, limiting the cost to the employer if you do make a mistake. Clients may be reluctant (or even refuse) to hire you without professional indemnity insurance. To have the best chance of getting a contract, arranging professional indemnity insurance is a necessity.
- Claims can bankrupt IT contractors.
A claim for an error or omission in a project could cost anything from a few hundred pounds to hundreds of thousands. If you are uninsured, you will have to foot the bill for legal fees and compensation which could leave your financial situation vulnerable in the event of a claim. Read more here!
There is this one famous Malay proverb which says, “sediakan payung sebelum hujan” which means that we should provide an umbrella before the rain finally comes. So, let’s not wait until that heavy fall before looking for a good umbrella or at least a raincoat to cover ourselves from being soaked to the skin. Even though your business is small, when it involves lawsuit, no amount of money is small enough to cover for everything. It can easily cost more than 10,000 dollars even at the initial stage of the lawsuit, without court hearings yet. Imagine how much going to court might cost in the end. Tech Insurance website tries to paint some vivid pictures about the financial burden that a business might suffer when a legal case is brought against it.
Professional liability premium cost vs. cost of legal fees
The answer is different for everyone, but the costs to defend your business in a professional negligence lawsuit can add up before you step foot in a courtroom.
According to Braden Perry (@bradenmperry), a regulatory and government investigations attorney with the law firmKennyhertz Perry , even cases that get tossed out without going to trial can still cost a small-business owner roughly $10,000 to $15,000 in legal fees.
“For a case to go through the answer stage, discovery, and a ruling on a motion for summary judgment, it can cost a company roughly $50,000,” says Perry.
He adds that if a case survives a summary judgment, it could cost a small-business owner approximately $100,000 to take the case all the way to a jury verdict. Read more here!
Knowing the huge cost that might be involved in a business lawsuit, why are we still taking unnecessary risks by not paying for insurance premium? Choosing to be a securely insured business is the wisest step to take. Our business is our reputation, and our future depends largely on its success or failure. This contains more truth when we are talking about small businesses which operates on small-scale, because its capital and cash are not that big. Imagine losing a dynamic and growing business because of a silly mistake caused by a junior employee, for example. Such incidents can happen to anyone and any business, so be prepared to think beyond the ordinary. At times, it is not only negligence that can be the cause, but there is a wide range of mistakes that you never thought can sink a mighty ship like yours. An article has more to say about the probable situations that might lead to professional liabilities. The piece at Hiscox blog.
Expect more than negligence as the probable reasons for lawsuit against your business
While protection in the event of negligence forms the core of the cover provided by PI insurance, it’s important that you consider a policy that offers cover for intellectual property, dishonesty, defamation and loss of documents too.
Why? Because it’s not just claims of negligence that can harm a small business. However robust your processes are, it can be easy for you or one of your employees to slip up when juggling the day-to-day running of the business.
Perhaps an employee sends a gossipy email about a difficult client to a supplier and copies in the client by accident. Read more here!
So, really? Why the wait? Why the thoughtful look on our face, still? We must be thinking, “It might never happen to my business at all. My business is professional enough not to be smeared by this kind of lawsuits for five years already.” But luck cannot always be on our sides. When our business grow, more projects starts to pour in. We cannot wait until too late for the risk of getting a red flag, and the insurance company will deny to pay anything.
To conclude, never take the wrong risks. Be wise and protect our business as early as possible from having to pay for any expensive legal actions. At least we have something to fall back on during the hardest challenge that we have to face in the life of an IT business owner.
What Goes Into Protecting Yachts?
Yachts are an investment to most people. Considering the costs that go into buying and maintaining them, most people spare nothing when it comes to its protection. People usually try to get the best they can afford for their yachts when it comes to its protection, like a security system to protect it from theft or waterproof covers to protect the seats and such. While yachts can do without a few of these protective measures for some time, the same cannot be said for marine insurance. Merely securing the yachts physically is no longer sufficient. The vast majority of the threats to one�s yachts are unpredictable. Having a good marine insurance policy for the yachts, enables people to enjoy them without worry and fear. In this article we shall discuss, what goes into protecting yachts.
If you are looking for marine insurance in Singapore, you should consider Allegiance Associates Marine Insurance. They cover both Marine Cargo and Marine Hull insurances. You should definitely look them up above if you are serious about protecting your marine goods or properties.
Seas and oceans are not to be gambled with
With weather changes becoming turbulent without any warning, marine insurance is the single most important protection for yachts. Hurricanes in the recent years have proven the might of nature. Most of the harbours around the world, have witnessed the capabilities of hurricanes first hand. Yacht owners who had gone for the full marine insurance were the ones who turned out to be smart in the end. People who had taken up bare minimum insurance, had to inevitably pay the price of gambling with the seas. The vast majority of yachts are frequently customised with the very best of what boat building has to offer. Surprisingly, a lot of yacht owners did not have the funds to salvage their sunken yachts, thus resulting in massive losses. Even though, such calamities of such intensity are quite rare, it is not an excuse for slacking when it comes to marine insurance.
Marine insurance protects the yacht owners apart from the yachts themselves
With unpredictable weather, there is no way to prevent yachting accidents before they occur. Marine insurance protects the yacht owners from severe financial burden in case of yachting accidents. Everything from injury to yacht damage is covered in most good marine insurances. While one is at the sea, so many things can go wrong, no matter how careful one is. Marine insurance is the only sure-fire way to protect oneself against all of it. Fortunately, with more people realising the importance of having a good marine insurance policy in place for their yachts, marine insurance premiums have become reasonable. It is high time yacht owners leveraged it to the maximum.
How Iris Recognition Could Assist Law Enforcement In Discharging Their Duties?
Contrary to popular belief, the means to distinguish people based on their irises was existent for quite a few years now. However, with biometric security applications receiving a lot of attention of late, technological companies started their attempts to make it economical and viable for everyday use. With technology making progress in leaps and bounds, long range iris scanning is now finally a reality.
If you are looking for an Iris Recognition System for your company, you should consider ATT Systems Group Iris Recognition System. They have the expertise and know-how to assist you on your technical needs and implementing the systems. You should check them out.
While most people might find this farfetched, it’s only because they did not know that it was in works for quite a few years now. The US military has already been using iris recognition systems for identification purposes in Afghanistan from 2004 itself. With smartphones and tablets sporting biometric security measures now, iris recognition systems are bound to make an entry into everyday life sooner than later. Although iris recognition on its own is quite useful, there are a few applications wherein long distance verification is desired. This is particularly useful for law enforcement and counterterrorism personnel in discharging their duties. In this article we shall discuss, how iris recognition could assist law enforcement in discharging their duties.
Roadblocks to covert use of iris recognition
Human rights and civil liberties groups are expressly against the use of long range iris recognition systems in any capacity. Their concerns are about its potential misuse by the governments for their own vested interests. While this threat is very real, the unique benefits that long range iris recognition can offer cannot be summarily rejected. Intelligence proponents hope that people will eventually see that, the amount of good that long range iris recognition can do for them is way higher than its potential for misuse. Amendments which incorporate strict legal provisions governing the use of long range iris recognition, may be able to alleviate some of these concerns to an extent.
Potential usage scenarios
The potential applications for long range iris recognition technology are virtually limitless. It can massively restrict human trafficking and smuggling of criminals or terrorists to safe havens. Law enforcement officials can easily track fugitives, thereby ensuring greater security of the general public. Even though criminals can use long range iris scanning for their own illicit purposes, securing the databases with which iris identification can be achieved by stronger algorithms can mitigate this to some extent. Additionally, governments will have to accord people greater transparency to ensure that, their own agencies do not misuse this beneficial technology for their own selfish gains.
Every business big and small would involve the shipment of products from one location to another. The type of products being shipped, the value of the consignment being shipped and the mode of shipment would all vary. Some businesses rely on shipment companies to get the cargo shipped and some have in-house shipment arrangements. Based on what is owned the choice of marine cargo vs. marine hull insurance would vary. Choosing an insurance company that caters to every type of marine insurance including cargo and hull insurance would be a good idea as this would be a perfect future ready option.
If you are looking for marine insurance in Singapore, you should consider Allegiance Associates Marine Insurance. They cover both Marine Cargo and Marine Hull insurances. You should definitely look them up above if you are serious about protecting your marine goods or properties.
Marine cargo insurance- as the name indicates this one covers the damage of the cargo being shipped.
Marine hull insurance- marine hull insurance covers the vessel that carries the shipment
Marine cargo insurance
If your business has outsourced the cargo shipment then a marine cargo insurance would be sufficient. This one can benefit not just the shipper but also the consignee as well as the distributors. If there is some damage caused to the goods being shipped then the insurance cover would automatically take care of the associated expenses. The policy can be chosen so as to cover inland shipments as well as those that occur to foreign countries. The value of the insurance premium here would depend mostly on the type of products being shipped (some risky cargo might attract higher premiums) and the value of the goods on the whole. Another factor that might affect the details of the policy would be the distance between the start and stop points of the shipment.
Marine hull insurance
If yours is a shipment business, one that handles cargo transportation via. ocean route, air or other modes of transport then you would definitely need a marine hull insurance. Particularly businesses that own the cargo vessel requires this type of vehicle insurance to meet the costs incurred in the maintenance of the vehicle. Hull insurance covers the vessel carrying the cargo and any damage that occurs to it. The type of products being shipped might not influence the premium in this case. But the trade routes that the vessel takes, machinery on board, the overall nature of the vessel and other such factors about the shipment vessel would determine the premium of the insurance policy. Hull insurance is handy because any repairs and maintenance work that happens at an unexpected time might in turn affect the shipment and this means there would be additional costs involved.
So choose the right type of insurance so as to get a proper insurance cover. The capital spent on marine cargo and hull insurance is one of the best investment any business can make.
According to the Business Dictionary, economics attempts to explain how wealth is created and distributed in communities, how people allocate resources that are scarce and have many alternative uses, and other such matters that arise in dealing with human wants and their satisfaction. If we see the point, economics really has a lot of things to do with our lives. It affects us in many ways. If you are struggling to understand the purpose of economics in school, you should check out Advo education centre to understand the importance of excelling in this subject. In this article, we will explore how economics is involved in our daily lives.
Cynthia Clark will now tell us how economics affect our daily lives. Let us read about it below.
How Does Economics Affect Our Daily Lives?
Economics is a social science that deals with the life-cycle of goods and services. It is a study of how innovation and finance revolve around human needs and desires to provide products and services to the public. Understanding economics is critical to business success.
Supply and Cost
Economics has an enormous effect on the daily lives and wallets of all people, even if they aren’t actually involved in economic studies. The principles of supply and demand play out everyday for every person making purchasing decisions on goods and services, and in keeping or finding a job. Changes in circumstances or government mandates on any aspect of an industry creates a ripple effect of price changes through multiple industries to the end consumer. Read more here.
The supply and cost alone has already a tremendous effect on our lives. It’s almost every day that we buy and consume products and it is also almost every day that we think about cost and expenses. On the other hand, Tejvan Pettinger will tell us about the importance of economics in our daily lives.
Importance of economics in our daily lives
Economics affects our daily lives in both obvious ways and more subtle ways. From an individual perspective, economics frames many choices we have to make about work, leisure, consumption and how much to save. Our lives are also influenced by broader economic trends, such as inflation, interest rates and economic growth. Force we have little control over but can change our lives.
Economic choices – opportunity cost
We are constantly faced with choices. It may be a matter of limited time. For example, at the weekend:
- We could spend 8 hours working in a cafe at the Minimum Wage of £5.60
- Or we could spend 8 hours studying for our A – Levels.
- Alternatively, we could choose to spend 8 hours of leisure (sleeping in, Facebook e.t.c.)
Each choice has an opportunity cost. The opportunity cost of earning 8*£5.60 £44.80 is that we don’t have time to study. This could lead to poorer exam results, which could lead to lower future earning potential. Read more here.
It is really important that we have knowledge of economics especially in making our choices. We have to know how to weigh things better under the principles of economics. If we want to know more of the importance of economics in our daily life, then let us read an article the Assignment Prime which is found below.
Importance of Economics in Our Daily Life
When someone mentions economics as a subject, the most common assumption that comes to the mind of every student is that it is dull and boring. Many senior school students don’t opt for this subject because they think it is very difficult to understand its various concept. Even if they do choose the field, they doze off half the time during the classes. But, if you study it with more interest and concentration, you will notice that it is one of the most applied subjects in real life. In fact, many of our day-to-day activities involve the use of the major concepts including production, distribution, and consumption which are very helpful in taking certain decisions in our daily life.
Let us take a look at some of the major concepts that economics has taught us which are important in life: Read more here.
According to the article above, one important thing where we could apply economics is in our investment decisions. We all want to invest a lot of things, but through economics, we can determine if the investment would be proper and right. Economics really has something important to do with our lives. It helps you manage your properties and belongings and it helps you in a lot of other different aspects.
During the last twenty-five years, a lot of advancement has been made in the area of DNA profiling and this advancement has made it possible for individuals to be identified through their DNA, which can be gotten from biological materials like the hair, semen, blood, and others. The DNA contains the genetic materials that it is in the billions of cells that are in our bodies. It basically holds all the unique information that makes us who we are.
The sequence of the DNA code is almost the same in every human, but there are important constituents in the DNA that separates an individual from another. The differences between DNA are what scientists have used in accurately identifying individuals.
New research has shown that DNA profiling can identify an individual in a more efficient and accurate way especially when compared to the traditional fingerprint method. DNA profiling has been used countless times to determine paternity and family relationship which of course the fingerprinting system cannot do.
DNA profiling is very effective when it is used on people with different DNA, but in the case of identical twins, it is somewhat different, obviously because identical twins usually begin their life with the same exact DNA. But this does not mean that DNA profiling cannot be used to distinguish them. The DNA of identical twins can be distinguished through advanced techniques.
Lastly, tests can be done using DNA to find out if one has defective genes, and this can help identify what diseases your future offspring is susceptible to. By knowing this, one can adjust their lifestyle to mitigate or put their future offspring at lesser risk. There are many commerical companies that offer this service to consumers, one of them is Mapmygenes and more infomation can be found on their page here http://www.mapmygene.com/services/disease-susceptibility-test
Method used in DNA profiling
In recent years, a lot of people have thought deeply about the role DNA profiling plays in modern times. Interestingly, there have been numerous cases in both the private and the public sector where DNA profiling has been used in the identification of individuals and establishing family relationships. These cases show that DNA profiling matters are important.
Next, we are going to be looking at four ways DNA profiling has been used in recent years.
Identification of criminals
DNA profiling plays a very important role especially when a crime scene is been investigated. It can be used easily to identify a culprit through any body fluid or biological matter that is left at a scene. This is particularly important in the rape case. Prior to the use of DNA profiling, rape cases were almost impossible to solve, but now, things have changed in that small, biological remains like hair follicles or shedding skin can be used to identify a culprit of a crime.
This technology has also been used to exonerate people who have been jailed falsely for a crime that they did not commit. You can learn more about how DNA profiling has helped in exonerating innocent people from prison here.
Identifying the remains after a tragedy or disaster
After a disaster like an air crash, flood or a car crash, it might not be possible to identify the remains of victims physically. DNA profiling is used here to identify bodies that might be unrecognizable. DNA profiling makes it possible for the family members of accident victims to be able to put their dead loved ones to rest and to start recovering from their loss.
If a child and his/her parents are separated since birth, finding the identity of one’s biological father is not easy, but it is possible through DNA testing. Over the years DNA profiling has been used to establish the relationship between people.
Many today are really curious about their ancestry. Through DNA testing it is now possible to establish relationships between an individual in a particular area and beyond.
In this article, we have been able to see the important roles that DNA profiling has played in the past.
In the future, it is likely going to be used in predicting as well as knowing the role it plays in a child’s intelligence level as well as other important areas of life.
Have you ever watched television news, movies, or dramas related to crime where investigators or detectives have to identify a certain body or identify a criminal or the assailant? The process done is actually called DNA profiling. According to Science Learning Hub, DNA profiling is the process where a specific DNA pattern, called a profile, is obtained from a person or sample of bodily tissue which can be used to identify individuals. However, that is not the only purpose of DNA profiling because there are other wonderful things about this. There are many commercial organizations that used dna profiling technologies to help people identify their traits. One such organization is Mapmygenes can more information can be found on their dna profiling page at http://www.mapmygene.com/services/disease-susceptibility-test/
In an article by Bio Ninja, we would be able to know more about DNA profiling. Let us read below.
DNA profiling is a technique by which individuals can be identified and compared via their respective DNA profiles
- Within the non-coding regions of an individual’s genome there exists satellite DNA – long stretches of DNA made up of repeating elements called short tandem repeats(STRs)
- As individuals will likely have different numbers of repeats at a given satellite DNA locus, they will generate unique DNA profiles
DNA profiling is commonly used in criminal investigations (forensics) and to settle paternity disputes
The procedure involved is common for both:
- A DNA sample is collected (e.g. from blood, semen, saliva, etc.) and then amplified using PCR
- Satellite DNA (with STR sequences) are cut with specific restriction enzymes to generate fragments
- Fragment length will differ between individuals due to the variable length of their short tandem repeats
- The fragments are separated using gel electrophoresis and the resulting profiles are compared. Read more here.
So Bioninja provided us with information about the procedure in conducting DNA profiling which is quite similar for both purposes which is for forensic investigation and paternity testing. Now, let us take a look at the importance of DNA Profiling which will be discussed to us by Maita Independent through their article below.
The Importance of DNA profiling
“I think it is important that without killing a human life, you avoid that it is conceived – especially if you know the child will be born with a disability. In saying this, I don’t think it reduces the life or dignity of the person with a disability,” a parent, whose child was born with a disability, told the Social Affairs Committee last week.
The session was held behind closed doors to protect the identity of the speaker. She was referred to as Paula.
She explained that her sister became pregnant several years ago. During a routine check-up in her seventh month of pregnancy, the doctors realised that the baby’s head was larger than it should be.
She was immediately referred to St Luke’s Hospital and after further investigations, it was found that the baby had a condition called hydrocephalus – a condition where an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the cerebral ventricles causes enlargement of the skull and compression of the brain, destroying much of the neural tissue. Read more here.
So that is a true story showing us how important DNA profiling is especially if you are planning or about to conceive a child. Below, we are going to read more about real life cases where DNA profiling changed everything. The Forensic Outreach Team will provide us with those.
5 Real-Life Cases Where DNA Profiling Changed Everything
DNA testing on crime scene evidence is considered conclusive, but it was not always so. 30 years ago, this tool was considered too controversial to make a difference in identifying or clearing a suspect.
DNA profiling is the process whereby a string of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is extracted from a cell of an organism, mixed with a ‘restriction enzyme’ which, when processed reveals the blueprint of an individual; ‘instructions’ in each of 23 pairs of chromosomes that dictate physical characteristics, function and individuality, each is completely unique to an individual. DNA signature is duplicated in every cell of a person’s body, including urine, tears or semen, therefore scientifically accurate identification can be made.
- A twist of fate: the first use in England.
A fifteen year old school girl, Lynda Mann was abducted in Narbourough, England. The next day, her body was discovered raped and murdered. Three years later, another young woman met the same fate near Lynda’s resting place. Richard Buckland was arrested and confessed to the second murder only. An untested technique was applied; ‘genetic fingerprinting’ through DNA analysis. Surprisingly, there was no match in either murder, so the test was repeated. Ultimately, Buckland was proven innocent. As to why he confessed, he claimed he had been pressured by police. Read more here.
DNA profiling and DNA fingerprinting has really helped a lot in crime and investigation. Imagine how those criminals would be caught without this, they might still be roaming around and innocent people might have been arrested. So basically, DNA profiling is one of the most important discoveries right now. Without it, police investigation could’ve been more difficult right now, justice is not served well, and illnesses wouldn’t have been detected early.
DNA testing also known as DNA profiling is a technique pertaining to forensic science that helps to identify and determine an individuals characteristics through the help of the DNA. Now what is the DNA profile of an individual? It is a small set of DNA that is likely to vary between unrelated individuals. It is a unique as the fingerprint of an individual. DNA testing is very different from genome sequencing. DNA testing is mostly used in crime investigation and establishing the paternity of an individual. However there are many other uses of DNA profiling as well.
How is DNA testing done?
The process of DNA testing is established by the father of genetics, Sir Alec Jeffreys. In this process, a sample of the persons DNA (called a reference sample) is collected. The most common method of collecting this reference sample is through a buccal swab is not expensive and easily available and also non-invasive. If a buccal swab is not obtainable then other samples like saliva, blood, semen, sweat and other fluid tissue are used to collect the sample. This reference sample is then analyzed to determine an individuals DNA profile.
There are different types of DNA testing:
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Analysis: the PCAR analysis produces millions of precise DNA replications even from the smallest cell. Hence it has the advantage of analyzing even the miniscule sample that is gathered from the crime site.
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP): this was one the first techniques of DNA analysis in forensic science but is slowly becoming obsolete. This technique is becoming obsolete because large size of samples are needed as compared to other techniques.
Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Analysis: this technique analyses individual areas of the DNA. In criminal investigation thirteen areas are analyzed to establish DNA profiles.
Mitochondrial DNA Analysis: this technique is used for samples on which the STR or RFLP techniques fail. There are two types of DNA mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. In all the types of DNA testing the nuclear DNA is removed from the sample, but in this analysis the mitochondrial DNA is removed from the sample.
Y-Chromosome Analysis: the Y chromosome passes from the father to the son and this analysis is used to determine parental disputes.
Uses of DNA testing:
Archaeologists are now using DNA tests to record genetic codes and how life has progressed on earth that date back to centuries. DNA databases are maintained that are used to compare DNAs. DNA profiling has helped scientists to understand mutation and evolution.
DNA testing is the most definitive way of establishing a childs paternity. Either for mental peace or for legal matters often it becomes imperative to establish the father child relationship biologically. This is when DNA testing plays a huge role.
To establish a family tree and trace back to ones genetic ancestors often DNA testing is done. As the Y chromosome found in male are not likely to change from generation to generation, the analysis of Y chromosome can be done to establish family lines.
One major use of prenatal DNA testing is that it helps doctors to understand the health condition of the fetus and also diagnose any health issues. The probability of risk in certain genetic diseases is also determined with the help DNA testing.
Another wide usage of DNA testing is seen in criminal investigation. DNA profiles are stored by the police to solve cases. Often serial offenders are identified through analysis of a DNA sample.
In the wide spectrum of science DNA testing is done on new species and unidentified objects from outer space.
Many Dna testing are also done on gifted children in to identify which mixture of genes from their parents gave them their intelligence.
What is an insurance?
We all need to protect ourselves from monetary losses. There has to be some security in case some mishap happens due to which we end up having huge financial losses. Financial losses can happen to an individual or an organization as a whole. There might be also cases where you end up harming your physical wellbeing due to which you need some kind of a security to fall back upon. It is for such scenarios that we need insurance. An insurance is an arrangement by which a company or may be the state ensure to give some kind of compensation in case of any kind of losses or damage or even in case of death.
There are many different types of insurances like medical insurance that a company might provide to its employees as an employee benefit in case of any kind of illness or accident during their tenure in the organization; then there is the corporate insurance that secures the company against any sudden financial loss. Apart from this there is the error and omission insurance often used by doctors to secure themselves from undue claims made by patients in case of any mishap. Finally there is a policy for those individuals who go out of their native lands to work in a foreign country. This insurance is known as the foreign workers insurance.
Industries that benefit from foreign worker medical insurance :
The foreign workers insurance is availed a lot by those industries where people come to work from different countries. For example in the hospitality business, a hotel can employ someone from a foreign country. That person then becomes liable to be covered under the foreign workers medical insurance. Also we are living in a global world. Every year, every day, every hour people are travelling from one end of the globe to the other end for work. Each time an individual travels to a foreign country whether from the manufacturing sector or the service sector, whether from the utility industry or the entertainment industry, the industrial products sector or the infrastructure sector, they come under the purview of the foreign workers insurance that give them the much needed medical security. This insurance is provided by the employer under state regulations that differ from country to country. However, the premise of the insurance remains the same all over the world.